Introduction to Remote Partitioning

The Batch Developer Guide showed you how to create a typical single threaded Spring Batch application. While this is a great solution for most batch applications, there are cases where a particular step in the batch-job may take a significant amount time to do the work required. Spring Batch has a solution that lets a Batch Job partition a Step execution so that each partition handles a segment of work. In short, partitioning allows multiple instances of large batch applications to run concurrently. The purpose of this is to reduce the elapsed time required to process long-running batch jobs. Processes that can be successfully partitioned are those where the input file can be split or where the main database tables partitioned to allow the application to run against different sets of data.

So lets say we have a three-Step Job:

Batch Partitioning

The Job runs on the left-hand side as a sequence of Step instances. In this case, we have one step (Step 1), and it is the Manager for the partition. The Manager Step is responsible for allocating the work to and launching each worker. In this case, the worker is another instance of the Spring Batch application that is started with a specific profile enabled. The workers in our diagram are actually copies of our Spring Batch application that are deployed to the platform. Spring Batch metadata in the JobRepository ensures that each worker is executed once and only once for each Job execution.

Building our own Batch Application with Partitioning

In our sample application, we create a batch job that has a single step that is partitioned, and each partition prints its partition number.

You can view the completed project in the Spring Cloud Task samples.

Initializr

To create our batch application, we need to visit the Spring Initializr site and create a project, as follows:

  1. Visit the Spring Initializr site.
  2. Select the latest release of spring boot.
  3. Create a new Maven project with a Group name of io.spring.cloud and an Artifact name of partition.
  4. In the Dependencies text box, type task to select the Cloud Task dependency.
  5. In the Dependencies text box, type jdbc and then select the JDBC dependency.
  6. In the Dependencies text box, type h2 and then select the H2 dependency.

    1. We use H2 for unit testing.
  7. In the Dependencies text box, type mariadb and then select mariadb dependency (or your favorite database).

    1. We use mariadb for the runtime database.
  8. In the Dependencies text box, type batch and then select Batch.
  9. Click the Generate Project button.
  10. Download the partition.zip file, unzip it, and import the project into your favorite IDE.

Because the Spring Initializr site handles the details of a project as URL parameters, you can:

  1. Click this link to Spring Initializr to download the preconfigured partition.zip.
  2. Download the partition.zip file, unzip it, and import the project into your favorite IDE

Setting up MariaDB

  1. If you do not have an instance of MariaDB available to you, you can follow these instructions to run a MariaDB Docker image for this example:

    1. Pull a MariaDB docker image:
    docker pull mariadb
    1. Start MariaDB:
    docker run -p 3306:3306 --name mariadb  -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=password -e MYSQL_DATABASE=task -d mariadb:latest

Building The Application

To build the application:

  1. In your favorite IDE, create the io.spring.cloud.partition.configuration package.
  2. Using your favorite IDE add the following dependencies to your pom.xml.
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.batch</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-batch-integration</artifactId>
		</dependency>

		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-cloud-deployer-local</artifactId>
			<version>2.0.2.BUILD-SNAPSHOT</version>
		</dependency>
  1. Create a Java configuration that specifies the beans required for the Partition Job. In this case, create a JobConfiguration class (in the io.spring.cloud.partition.configuration) that looks like the contents below.

    @Configuration
    public class JobConfiguration {
    
        private static final int GRID_SIZE = 4;
        @Autowired
        public JobBuilderFactory jobBuilderFactory;
        @Autowired
        public StepBuilderFactory stepBuilderFactory;
        @Autowired
        public DataSource dataSource;
        @Autowired
        public JobRepository jobRepository;
        @Autowired
        private ConfigurableApplicationContext context;
        @Autowired
        private DelegatingResourceLoader resourceLoader;
        @Autowired
        private Environment environment;
    
        @Bean 
        public PartitionHandler partitionHandler(TaskLauncher taskLauncher, JobExplorer jobExplorer) throws Exception {
            Resource resource = this.resourceLoader
                .getResource("maven://io.spring.cloud:partition:0.0.1-SNAPSHOT");
    
            DeployerPartitionHandler partitionHandler =
                new DeployerPartitionHandler(taskLauncher, jobExplorer, resource, "workerStep");
    
            List<String> commandLineArgs = new ArrayList<>(3);
            commandLineArgs.add("--spring.profiles.active=worker");
            commandLineArgs.add("--spring.cloud.task.initialize.enable=false");
            commandLineArgs.add("--spring.batch.initializer.enabled=false");
            partitionHandler
                .setCommandLineArgsProvider(new PassThroughCommandLineArgsProvider(commandLineArgs));
            partitionHandler
                .setEnvironmentVariablesProvider(new SimpleEnvironmentVariablesProvider(this.environment));
            partitionHandler.setMaxWorkers(1);
            partitionHandler.setApplicationName("PartitionedBatchJobTask");
    
            return partitionHandler;
        }
    
        @Bean 
        @Profile("!worker")
        public Job partitionedJob(PartitionHandler partitionHandler) throws Exception {
            Random random = new Random();
            return this.jobBuilderFactory.get("partitionedJob" + random.nextInt())
                .start(step1(partitionHandler))
                .build();
        }
    
        @Bean 
        public Step step1(PartitionHandler partitionHandler) throws Exception {
            return this.stepBuilderFactory.get("step1")
                .partitioner(workerStep().getName(), partitioner())
                .step(workerStep())
                .partitionHandler(partitionHandler)
                .build();
        }
    
        @Bean   
        public Partitioner partitioner() {
            return new Partitioner() {
                @Override
                public Map<String, ExecutionContext> partition(int gridSize) {
    
                    Map<String, ExecutionContext> partitions = new HashMap<>(gridSize);
    
                    for (int i = 0; i < GRID_SIZE; i++) {
                        ExecutionContext context1 = new ExecutionContext();
                        context1.put("partitionNumber", i);
    
                        partitions.put("partition" + i, context1);
                    }
    
                    return partitions;
                }
            };
        }
    
        @Bean   
        @Profile("worker")
        public DeployerStepExecutionHandler stepExecutionHandler(JobExplorer jobExplorer) {
            return new DeployerStepExecutionHandler(this.context, jobExplorer, this.jobRepository);
        }
    
        @Bean 
        public Step workerStep() {
            return this.stepBuilderFactory.get("workerStep")
                .tasklet(workerTasklet(null))
                .build();
        }
    
        @Bean 
        @StepScope
        public Tasklet workerTasklet(
            final @Value("#{stepExecutionContext['partitionNumber']}") Integer partitionNumber) {
    
            return new Tasklet() {
                @Override
                public RepeatStatus execute(StepContribution contribution, ChunkContext chunkContext) throws Exception {
                    System.out.println("This tasklet ran partition: " + partitionNumber);
    
                    return RepeatStatus.FINISHED;
                }
            };
        }
    }
    • The PartitionHandler is the component that knows how the Step is partitioned. It sends StepExecution requests to the remote Steps.
    • The Job manages the batch process.
    • This Step is used by the manager to launch the worker steps
    • The Partitioner generates execution contexts as input parameters for new step executions.
    • The DeployerStepExecutionHandler uses Spring Cloud Deployer to launch the work step executions on the cloud platform.
    • The workers use this Step to execute the Tasklet.
    • The Tasklet that executes the business logic for the partitioned set of work -- in our case, printing the partition number.
  2. Now we can add our @EnableTask and @EnableBatchProcessing annotations to the PartitionApplication class, as follows:
@SpringBootApplication
@EnableTask  
@EnableBatchProcessing 
public class PartitionApplication {

	public static void main(String[] args) {
		SpringApplication.run(PartitionApplication.class, args);
	}
}
  • The @EnableTask annotation sets up a TaskRepository that stores information about the task execution, such as the start and end time of the task and its exit code.
  • The @EnableBatchProcessing annotation enables Spring Batch features and provides a base configuration for setting up batch jobs.

Deployment

This section covers how to deploy your Batch application.

Local

This section covers how to deploy your Batch application to your local computer.

  1. Now we can take the next step of building the project. From a command line change, directory to the location of your project and build the project by using Maven: ./mvnw clean install -DskipTests.
  2. Now we can execute the application with the configurations required to launch our Batch application.

    To configure the execution of the Batch application, add the following properties to your environment:

export spring_datasource_url=jdbc:mariadb://localhost:3306/task 
export spring_datasource_username=root 
export spring_datasource_password=password 
export spring_datasource_driverClassName=org.mariadb.jdbc.Driver 
export spring_batch_initializeSchema=always 
java -jar target/partition-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar
  • spring.datasource.url: Set the URL to your database instance. In this example, we connect to a MariaDB task database on our local machine at port 3306.
  • spring.datasource.username: The user name to be used for the MariaDB database. In this example, it is root.
  • spring.datasource.password: The password to be used for the MariaDB database. In this example, it is password.
  • spring.datasource.driverClassName: The driver to use to connect to the MariaDB database. In this example, it is org.mariadb.jdbc.Driver.
  • spring.batch.initializeSchema: Initializes the database with the tables required for Spring Batch. In this example, we state that we always want to do this. This does not overwrite the tables if they already exist.

Cleanup

To stop and remove the MariaDB container running in the Docker instance, run the following commands:

docker stop mariadb
docker rm mariadb